## What is the pKa of Ha?

The equation for an acid is just HA = H+ + A- where = means equilibrium. pKa is defined as -log10 Ka where Ka = [H+][A-] / [HA]. From these expressions it is possible to derive the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation which is.

## How do you calculate Henderson-Hasselbalch?

The equilibrium between the weak acid and its conjugate base allows the solution to resist changes to pH when small amounts of strong acid or base are added. The buffer pH can be estimated using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, which is pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA]).

## What does a higher pKa mean?

The higher the pKa of a Bronsted acid, the more tightly the proton is held, and the less easily the proton is given up. The pKa scale as an index of proton availability. Low pKa means a proton is not held tightly. pKa can sometimes be so low that it is a negative number! High pKa means a proton is held tightly.

## What is the pKa of a drug?

The pKa of a drug is the hydrogen ion concentration (pH) at which 50% of the drug exists in its ionized hydrophilic form (i.e., in equilibrium with its un-ionized lipophilic form). All local anesthetic agents are weak bases. At physiologic pH, the lower the pKa the greater the lipophilicity.

## What makes a drug lipid soluble?

A substance will become more lipid soluble in a solution with a pH similar to its own pH. A weak base is more lipid-soluble in an alkaline solution. A weak base is more WATER-soluble in an acidic solution.

## Why should drugs be water soluble?

Solubility is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for achieving required pharmacological response [12]. Poorly water soluble drugs often require high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration.

## What is the slowest route of absorption?

Chapter 30

What type of drug name is Advil? Brand name
The slowest route of absorption of a drug is oral
Who is responsible for regulating the sale of medicines? US Food and Drug Administration
Within the dental profession, who can prescribe drugs to a patient? Oral surgeon, general dentist

## Which is faster IM or IV?

While IV opioids have the fastest onset times (Morphine: 5 – 10 minutes), IM and SQ routes are options when IV access is a barrier to administration.

## What happens if injection is not given properly?

The microbes in injection substances, injection equipment or already-existing on the skin, can enter the body causing very serious infections. Similarly, incorrect injection techniques or erroneous injection locations, can cause blood vessel breakage, muscle or nerve damage and paralysis.

## What is iv and im?

1 Intravenous (IV), subcutaneous (SC), and intramuscular (IM) are three most frequently used injection routes in medication administration. IM injection is the technique used to deliver a medication deep into the muscles, allowing the medication to be absorbed into the bloodstream quickly.

## How do you administer IV push medication?

Scrub the end cap on your IV line for 15 seconds with a fresh alcohol pad and let it air dry. Twist the syringe of heparin or citrate into the end of your IV line. “Pulse flush” your IV line with the syringe of heparin or citrate. Before removing the empty syringe, close the clamp if you have one.

## How do you dilute medication for IV push?

(saline) flush syringe to dilute I.V. push medications is acceptable. flush syringes as an easy way to dilute and administer medications. However, the Food and Drug Administration has approved them only for flushing ve- nous access devices.

## Do you need to dilute Lasix IV push?

Intravenous infusion: Dilute furosemide in NS, lactated Ringer’s, or D5W injection solution; adjust pH to greater than 5.5 when necessary. Intermittent IV infusion: Infuse at a rate not to exceed 4 mg/minute in adults or 0.5 mg/kg/minute in children. No dilution necessary.