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What is the function of the outer ear?

What is the function of the outer ear?

The outer ear consists of the visible portion on the side of the head, known as the pinna [1], and the external auditory canal (ear canal) [2]. The purpose of the pinna is to catch sound waves, amplify them slightly, and funnel them down the ear canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum) [3].

How do external ears help us?

The outer ear directs sound waves from the external environment to the tympanic membrane. The auricle, the visible portion of the outer ear, collects sound waves and, with the concha, the cavity at the entrance to the external auditory canal, helps to funnel sound into the…

What does the outer ear include?

The outer or external ear consists of the pinna, also called the auricle, and the external auditory meatus, the ear canal. The ear canal ends, and the middle ear begins, at the tympanic membrane, the eardrum. The shape of the auricle helps focus sound into the ear.

What is the basic function of the outer ear quizlet?

what are the functions of the outer ear? resonance characteristic of outer ear: handles sounds most effective & efficiently. going to “hear” those frequencies better with greater ease.

What does the place theory of pitch perception suggest?

The place theory of pitch perception suggests that different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies. More specifically, the base of the basilar membrane responds best to high frequencies and the tip of the basilar membrane responds best to low frequencies.

What is the main function of the middle ear?

The primary function of the middle ear is to offset the decrease in acoustic energy that would occur if the low impedance ear canal air directly contacted the high-impedance cochlear fluid.

What 3 bones are in the middle ear?

The middle ear contains three tiny bones:

  • Hammer (malleus) — attached to the eardrum.
  • Anvil (incus) — in the middle of the chain of bones.
  • Stirrup (stapes) — attached to the membrane-covered opening that connects the middle ear with the inner ear (oval window)

What are the 3 functions of the external ear?

The function of the outer ear is to collect sound waves and guide them to the tympanic membrane. The middle ear is a narrow air-filled cavity in the temporal bone. It is spanned by a chain of three tiny bones—the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup), collectively called the auditory ossicles.

Why is the ear shaped like a cup?

Alfred E. Neuman-size ear flaps should help drown out ambient noise behind a person, thus allowing him to hear the person he is facing better. No matter your ear shape, to hear more clearly when speaking with someone face to face, simply cup the pinnas with your hands to concentrate the oncoming sound.

Are there nerves in your ear cartilage?

Auricular cartilage is flexible, connective tissue, sometimes referred to as gristle. This type of cartilage is known as elastic cartilage. It contains no nerve cells or blood vessels, and is semi-opaque (somewhat see-through).

Are there nerves in the outer ear?

Four sensory nerves supply the external ear: (1) greater auricular nerve, (2) lesser occipital nerve, (3) auricular branch of the vagus nerve, and (4) auriculotemporal nerve. Knowledge of the nerve anatomy is critical in understanding anesthesia of the ear.

What causes pain on the outside of the ear?

Outer ear pain can most commonly be caused by environmental conditions such as water exposure or extreme cold weather that can lead to frostbite of the outer ear. Other causes for ear tragus pain include irritation from obtrusive objects like cotton swabs or fingers.

Is there a nerve in your face that makes your ear bend?

The vestibulocochlear nerve (sometimes referred to as the auditory nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves.

What is the outside of your ear called?


How far is the eardrum from the outer ear?

The adult human ear canal extends from the pinna to the eardrum and is about 2.5 centimetres (1 in) in length and 0.7 centimetres (0.3 in) in diameter.

What causes inflammation of the outer ear?

Outer ear infection (otitis externa) is usually caused by bacteria. But it may be caused by a fungal infection, especially if you’ve already had antibiotics for a bacterial infection. There are non-infectious causes of ear inflammation such as allergies, irritants, and skin conditions such as eczema.

Why does my Pinna hurt?

Infection of the ear canal (otitis externa) is also called swimmer’s ear. Otitis externa is typically caused by bacterial infection. Earache can also be caused by pain and inflammation of the outer portion of the ear (the pinna).

What causes sore ear cartilage?

Chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis is an inflammatory skin condition that affects the ear. It causes a painful bump to develop on the top rim or helix of the ear or the curved piece of cartilage just inside, known as the antihelix. The condition, abbreviated to CNH, is also known as Winkler disease.

How is the pinna damaged?

The external ear (pinna or auricle) can be damaged by trauma or inflammation or there can be a congenital abnormality, i.e. present at birth. Noticeable hearing loss will only arise if the entrance to the ear canal is obstructed or closed up preventing sound entry.

What is inflammation of the pinna?

Perichondritis is inflammation of the perichondrium, a layer of connective tissue which surrounds cartilage. A common form, auricular perichondritis (perichondritis auriculae) involves infection of the pinna due to infection of traumatic or surgical wound or the spread of inflammation into depth (eg.

How do you treat an ear cartilage infection?

Treating the infection at home

  1. Wash your hands before touching or cleaning your piercing.
  2. Clean around the piercing with a saltwater rinse three times a day.
  3. Don’t use alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or antibiotic ointments.
  4. Don’t remove the piercing.
  5. Clean the piercing on both sides of your earlobe.

What is Chondritis ear?

Chondritis is a surgical infection requiring immediate exploration, débridement of necrotic cartilage, and soft tissue coverage to prevent severe cartilage destruction and resultant deformity.

What causes ear cartilage swelling?

The typical causes of earlobe swelling are infection, allergies, and trauma. While most earlobe injuries can be treated with over-the-counter medications and home remedies, you might want to see your doctor if your symptoms are really severe.

What does Winkler’s disease look like?

Winkler’s disease usually presents as 3 to 10 mm nodules in the helix or anti helix. We are reporting an unusual presentation of Winkler’s disease as a large nodular mass arising from the tragus, nearly occluding the external auditory canal (size about 1.5 x 2.0 cms).

What are two signs and symptoms of Perichondritis?


  • Redness.
  • Swelling.
  • Pain.
  • Pus or other fluid discharge (in severe cases)
  • Fever (in severe cases)
  • Deformation of the ear structure (in severe cases)

How long does it take for cartilage infection to heal?

Cartilage piercings typically take anywhere from 4 to 12 months to heal completely.

What is pinna cellulitis?

Pinna perichondritis or cellulitis are potentially serious conditions. Pinna cellulitis can occur as a complication of acute otitis externa, a complication of eczema or psoriasis, or from an insect bite. Pinna perichondritis is usually a result of penetrating trauma, including ear piercing.

Is Perichondritis an emergency?

Not uncommon by any stretch (it affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year), perichondritis may be under-recognized in fast-paced emergency departments. Perichondritis is an infection of the connective tissue of the ear that covers the cartilaginous auricle or pinna, excluding the lobule. (Ear Nose Throat J.

Is Perichondritis painful?

Perichondritis usually presents first as a dull pain that increases in severity, accompanied by redness and swelling. 2 The redness usually surrounds an area of injury, such as a cut or scrape.