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What is the cause of PEM?

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common childhood disorder and is primarily caused by deficiency of energy, protein, and micronutrients. PEM manifests as underweight (low body weight compared with healthy peers), stunting (poor linear growth), wasting (acute weight loss), or edematous malnutrition (kwashiorkor).

How do you prevent PEM?

Mild or moderate PEM are best judged by anthropometry; regular weighing, for monitoring growth, may be a useful control strategy. Because infections play such an important role in PEM, three practical approaches-immunization, deworming of children, and oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea–are discussed.

What are the 2 types of malnutrition?

There are two major types of malnutrition:

  • Protein-energy malnutrition – resulting from deficiencies in any or all nutrients.
  • Micronutrient deficiency diseases – resulting from a deficiency of specific micronutrients.

How do I know if I’m malnourished?

You could be malnourished if: you unintentionally lose 5 to 10% of your body weight within 3 to 6 months. your body mass index (BMI) is under 18.5 (although a person with a BMI under 20 could also be at risk) – use the BMI calculator to work out your BMI. clothes, belts and jewellery seem to become looser over time.

What is class 6 malnutrition?

Malnutrition is a condition in which a person does not get enough nutrients for proper function of its body. This may be due to, if a person do not get enough food, or not eating enough food in right amount, or the body of a person is unable to utilize the food causing lack of proper nutrition.

What is the normal Muac?

MUAC Resources – Sources for MUAC straps MUAC of between 110mm (11.0cm) and 125mm (12.5cm), RED COLOUR (3-colour Tape) or ORANGE COLOUR (4-colour Tape), indicates Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM). The child should be immediately referred for supplementation.

What is the purpose of Muac?

Mid-upper arm circumference, often shortened to MUAC, is a measurement that allows health workers to quickly determine if a patient is acutely malnourished. PIH, as well as many other organizations, measures the circumference of a patient’s arm at the midpoint between his or her shoulder and elbow.

What is a normal arm circumference?

The average biceps size varies between the sexes, too. Here’s a look at the average circumference of the middle arm by age and sex based on information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ….Males.

Age Average biceps size in inches
20–29 13.3
30–39 13.8
40–49 13.9
50–59 13.5

What is a MUAC and How Is It Measured?

Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) is the circumference of the left upper arm, measured at the mid-point between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). The MUAC measurement requires little equipment and is easy to perform even on the most debilitated individuals.

How is Muac calculated?

To measure:

  1. Bend the left arm, find and mark with a pen the olecranon process and acromium.
  2. Mark the mid-point between these two marks.
  3. With the arm hanging straight down, wrap a MUAC tape around the arm at the midpoint mark.
  4. Measure to the nearest 1 mm.

How does Muac calculate weight?

Derivation and validation of a novel method to estimate weight in adults and adolescents, using mid-arm circumference (MAC). Weight (in kg) = 4 x [MAC (in cm)] – 50.

How do you do Muac weight?

Measuring mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) Measure the distance between the 2 points, identify the mid point and mark on the arm. Ask subject to let arm hang loose and with tape measure, measure circumference of arm at the mid point. Do not pull the tape measure tight – it should just fit comfortably round the arm.

What does must score mean?

‘MUST’ is a five-step screening tool to identify adults, who are malnourished, at risk of malnutrition (undernutrition), or obese. A flow chart showing the 5 steps to use for screening and management BMI chart Weight loss tables Alternative measurements when BMI cannot be obtained by measuring weight and height.

What is Bapen?

BAPEN* is a Charitable Association that raises awareness of malnutrition and works to advance the nutritional care of patients and those at risk from malnutrition in the wider community.

What is step 4 must?

Step 4. Overall risk of malnutrition. Add Scores together to calculate overall risk of malnutrition. Score 0 Low Risk Score 1 Medium Risk Score 2 or more High Risk. Re-assess subjects identified at risk as they move through care settings.

What is a must score of 0?

If the subject has not lost weight (or has gained weight) score 0. If the subject is currently affected by an acute patho-physiological or psychological condition, and there has been no nutritional intake or likelihood of no intake for more than 5 days, they are likely to be at nutritional risk.

Is the must tool effective?

The MUST tool is now implemented in all areas of the hospital successfully. Use of the tool is audited every six months, and all wards are visited regularly to ensure it is being implemented accurately. It has proven to be invaluable in identifying patients at risk of malnutrition or undernutrition.

How do you calculate your must score?

Deduct current weight from previous weight to calculate amount of weight lost. Use weight loss tables (Appendix 3) to establish weight loss score. If the subject has not lost weight (or has gained weight) in the past 3 to 6 months, score = 0.