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What is the basic cell of the nervous system?


What are the main cells of the nervous system called?

Cells of the Nervous System. There are two broad classes of cells in the nervous system: neurons, which process information, and glia, which provide the neurons with mechanical and metabolic support. Three general categories of neurons are commonly recognized (Peters, Palay, & Webster, 1976).

What is the main cell body of a neuron?

Also known as a soma, the cell body is the neuron’s core. The cell body carries genetic information, maintains the neuron’s structure, and provides energy to drive activities. Like other cell bodies, a neuron’s soma contains a nucleus and specialized organelles.

What are the 4 major parts of the neuron?

Introduction: The brain is made up of about 86 billion nerve cells (also called “neurons”). A neuron has 4 basic parts: the dendrites, the cell body (also called the “soma”), the axon and the axon terminal. Dendrites – Extensions from the neuron cell body that take information to the cell body.

How do neurons transmit signals?

When neurons communicate, an electrical impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the axon into the synapse. The neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind to special molecules on the other side, called receptors. Receptors are located on the dendrites. Receptors receive and process the message.

What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons?

Afferent neurons carry signals to the brain and spinal cord as sensory data. This neuron’s response is to send an impulse through the central nervous system. Efferent neurons are motor nerves. These are motor neurons carrying neural impulses away from the central nervous system and toward muscles to cause movement.

What is another name for afferent neuron?

sensory neurons

What is the function of an afferent neuron?

Afferent neurons collect data from the various sensory receptors distributed throughout the body and transport this information to the spinal cord and brainstem (sensory cranial nerves) for initial interpretation and distribution to CNS centers and structures that use sensory information in the performance of their …

What is the afferent part of a neuron?

Explanation: Afferent neurons are sensory neurons that carry nerve impulses from sensory stimuli towards the central nervous system and brain, while efferent neurons are motor neurons that carry neural impulses away from the central nervous systme and towards muscles to cause movement.

What does afferent mean?

: bearing or conducting inward specifically : conveying impulses toward the central nervous system — compare efferent.

What is the afferent nerve?

nerves that carry signals toward the central nervous system from the periphery. Afferent may also be used generally to describe nerves that are traveling into a nervous system structure (i.e. input fibers for a particular area as opposed to output fibers).

What is a primary afferent?

Primary afferent nociceptors (A-delta and C fibres) are generally the first structures to be involved in the perception of pain. These specialized primary afferent sensory neurons have also been described as important to the development of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

Are afferent nerves myelinated?

Afferent nerves in the lower urinary tract are divided into two types: A-δ and C-fibers. A-δ fibers are larger in diameter (2 to 5 μm), myelinated, with higher conduction velocities (2 to 30 m/sec) and have a lower threshold of activation than the C-fibers (Sengupta and Gebhart, 1994).

How are spinal nerves classified?

In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. These are grouped into the corresponding cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions of the spine.

What cell in our body has the longest lifespan?

What cells in the human body live the longest?

  • Heart muscle cells: 40 years.
  • Intestinal cells (excluding lining): 15.9 years.
  • Skeletal muscle cells: 15.1 years.
  • Fat cells: 8 years.
  • Hematopoietic stem cells: 5 years.
  • Liver cells: 10-16 months.
  • Pancreas cells: 1 year.
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