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What happens to the carboxyl group on an amino acid?

Peptide Bonds When two amino acids are covalently attached by a peptide bond, the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the incoming amino acid combine and release a molecule of water. The carboxyl group of one amino acid is linked to the amino group of the incoming amino acid.

What is the physiological pH of neutral amino acids which are in their zwitterionic form?

5.0 to 6.5

Is carboxyl group acidic or basic?

A carboxylic acid is an organic acid that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH) attached to an R-group. The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, or other group. Carboxylic acids occur widely….Acidity.

Carboxylic acid pKa
Trifluoroacetic acid (CF3CO2H) 0.23

How do methyl groups affect gene expression?

The methyl groups turn genes on or off by affecting interactions between the DNA and other proteins. Proteins can attach a variety of chemical tags to histones. Other proteins in cells can detect these tags and determine whether that region of DNA should be used or ignored in that cell.

Can gene expression be altered?

Several genetic or epigenetic events can alter gene expression and we assess their importance in multistage carcinogenesis. Mutation and chromosome rearrangement can produce changes in DNA sequence which have been identified in some cancer cells.

What is altered gene expression?

A gene that is not normally expressed in that cell can be switched on and expressed at high levels. This can be the result of gene mutation or changes in gene regulation ( epigenetic, transcription, post-transcription, translation, or post-translation).

How do you turn off gene expression?

DNA methylation is the addition or removal of a methyl group (one carbon and three hydrogen atoms—CH3) to or from the gene base. Chemical reactions can add or subtract a methyl group to or from the gene, turning the gene on or off. Histone modification is another common way of changing gene expression.

What can a DNA microarray teach us about oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes?

What can a DNA microarray teach us about oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes? It can teach us that oncogenes are more likely to be present when there is an increase in gene expression and there is more tumor suppressor genes when there is a decrease in gene expression. The gene is not expressed in either cell.

How could you use microarray technology to determine which genes have been affected in his tumor cells?

How could you use microarray technology to determine which genes have been affected in his tumor cells? We could use the microarray technology to see which genes his cancer cells have increased, lessened, turned on, or turned off. That the mutations in the cancer cell turned that gene off for the cancer cell.

What does a microarray tell you?

Microarray analysis may also detect large parts of a chromosome that are genetically identical. It may also mean that a person got both copies in the chromosome pair from a same parent rather than one copy from each parent.